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Desalination: Water from Water

Order Code: WY182
ISBN Number: 978118208526
Publisher: Wiley
No. of Pages: 664
Date of Publication: 2014

Desalination: Water from Water


Price: 125.99

This is the first volume to cover desalination in such depth and detail, offering engineers, technicians, and operators full coverage of the applications, economics, and expectations of what will certainly become one of the most important water-related processes on the planet. Covering thermal processes and membrane processes, this is the only volume any engineer working in desalination must have, covering both practical and theoretical issues encountered on a daily basis. Certain to be an important contribution to the water management community.

Contents

Section I Introduction
1 Introduction to Desalination

- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 How Much Water is There?
- 1.3 Finding More Fresh Water ?
- 1.4 Desalination: Water from Water
- 1.5 Desalination: Water from Water Outline

Section II Traditional Thermal Process

2 Thermal Desalination Processes
- 2.1 Thermodynamic Fundamentals
- 2.2 Mass- and Energy Balances
- 2.3 Performance of Thermal Desalination Processes
- 2.4 Historical Review
- 2.5 State-of-the-Art
- 2.6 Future Prospects

Section III Membrane Processes

3 The Reverse Osmosis Process
- 3.1 The Reverse Osmosis Process
- 3.2 Permeate Recovery Rate (Conversion Ratio)
- 3.3 Net Driving Pressure
- 3.4 Salt - Water Separation in Reverse Osmosis Process
- 3.5 Water Transport
- 3.6 Salt Transport
- 3.7 Salt Passage and Salt Rejection
- 3.8 Temperature Effect on Transport Rate
- 3.9 Average Permeate Flux
- 3.10 Specifi c Water Permeability of a Membrane
- 3.11 Concentration Polarization
- 3.12 Commercial RO/NF Membrane Technology
- 3.13 Cellulose Acetate Membranes
- 3.14 Composite Polyamide Membranes
- 3.15 Membrane Module Confi gurations
- 3.16 Spiral Wound Elements
- 3.17 Spiral Wound Element Categories
- 3.18 RO System Confi guration
- 3.19 Membrane Assembly Unit
- 3.20 Concentrate Staging
- 3.21 Permeate Staging (Two Pass Systems)
- 3.22 Partial Two Pass Confi guration
- 3.23 Calculation of System Performance
- 3.24 Monitoring of Process Parameters and Equipment Performance in RO System
- 3.25 Normalization of RO System Performance
- 3.26 Membrane Elements Fouling Process
- 3.27 Performance Restoration

4 Nanofi ltration - Theory and Application
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Defining Nanofi ltration
- 4.3 History of Nanofi ltration
- 4.4 Theory
- 4.5 Application
- 4.6 Conclusions

5 Forward Osmosis
- 5.1 The Limitations of Conventional Desalination
- 5.2 Forward Osmosis
- 5.3 The Draw Solution
- 5.4 The Membrane
- 5.5 Process Design and Desalination Applications
- 5.6 Future Directions
- 5.7 Acknowledgements

6 Electrodialysis Desalination 287
- 6.1 Principles of Electrodialysis
- 6.2 Preparation and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes
- 6.3 ED Equipment Design and Desalination Process
- 6.4 Control of Fouling in an ED Desalination Process
- 6.5 Prospects for ED Desalination
- 6.6 Concluding Remarks

7 Continuous Electrodeionization
- 7.1 Introduction
- 7.2 Development History
- 7.3 Technology Overview
- 7.4 CEDI Module Construction
- 7.5 Electroactive Media Used in CEDI Devices
- 7.6 DC Current and Voltage
- 7.7 System Design Considerations
- 7.8 Process Design Considerations
- 7.9 Operation and Maintenance
- 7.10 Applications
- 7.11 Future Trends

8 Membrane Distillation: Now and Future
- 8.1 Introduction
- 8.2 MD Concepts and Historic Development
- 8.3 MD Transport Mechanisms
- 8.4 Strategic Development for an Enhanced MD System
- 8.5 Energy and Cost Evaluation in MD
- 8.6 Innovations on MD Application Development
- 8.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

Section IV Non-Traditional Desalination Processes

9 Humidifi cation Dehumidifi cation Desalination

- 9.1 Introduction
- 9.2 Thermal Design
- 9.3 Bubble Column Dehumidifi cation
- 9.4 Cost of Water Production

10 Freezing-Melting Desalination Process
- 10.1 Introduction
- 10.2 Background or History of Freezing Melting Process
- 10.3 Principles of Freezing-Melting Process
- 10.4 Major Types of Freezing-Melting Process
- 10.5 Direct Contact Freezing
- 10.6 Direct Contact Eutectic Freezing
- 10.7 Indirect-Contact FM Process
- 10.8 Vacuum Process
- 10.9 Block FM Process
- 10.10 Applications
- 10.11 Future Challenges

11 Desalination by Ion Exchange
- 11.1 Introduction
- 11.2 Early Ion Exchange Desalination Processes
- 11.3 Life after RO
- 11.4 Ion Exchange Softening as Pre-Treatment
- 11.5 Softening by Ion Exchange
- 11.6 Boron-Selective Ion Exchange Resins as Post-Treatment
- 11.7 New Vessel Designs
- 11.8 New Resin Bead Design
- 11.9 Conclusion

12 Electrosorption of Heavy Metals with Capacitive Deionization: Water Reuse, Desalination and Resources Recovery
- 12.1 Introduction
- 12.2 Experimental Methods
- 12.3 Results and Discussions
- 12.4 Conclusions

Section V Renewable Energy Sources to Power Desalination

13 Solar Desalination

- 13.1 Introduction
- 13.2 Direct Solar Desalination
- 13.3 Indirect Solar Desalination
- 13.4 Non-Conventional Solar Desalination
- 13.5 Process Evaluation

Section VI Future Expectations 583

14 Future Expectations

- 14.1 Introduction
- 14.2 Historical Trends in Fresh Water Supply Development
- 14.3 Emerging Trends and Directions in Alternative Water Supply Development
- 14.4 Desalination for Oil and Gas
- 14.5 The Future of Desalination Technologies
- 14.6 Summary

References
Index